A randomized trial of olfactory stimulation using black pepper oil in older people with swallowing dysfunction

Ebihara T, Ebihara S, Maruyama M, Kobayashi M, Itou A, Arai H, Sasaki H
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 2009


ABSTRACT:

DESIGN:
To determine the effect of olfactory stimulation with volatile black pepper oil (BPO) on risk factors for pneumonia.

SETTING:
A 1-month randomized, controlled study.

PARTICIPANTS:
Nursing homes in Japan that serve as long-term care facilities for older residents who are physically handicapped, mainly because of cerebrovascular disease.

MEASUREMENTS:
One hundred five poststroke residents.

RESULTS:
Latency of the swallowing reflex (LTSR), the number of swallowing movements, serum substance P (SP), and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF).

CONCLUSIONS:
Nasal inhalation of BPO for 1 minute shortened LTSR, compared with that of lavender oil and distilled water (P < .03). Compared with the period before the study, the 1-month intervention using BPO improved LTSR with an increase of serum SP (P < .01). The number of swallowing movements for 1 minute during the nasal inhalation of BPO increased (P < .001). Multiple comparisons showed a poststudy increase in rCBF within the insular cortex (P < .001). Compared with the prestudy rCBF, BPO intervention increased rCBF in the right orbitofrontal and left insular cortex (P < .001).

CITATION:

Ebihara T, Ebihara S, Maruyama M, et al. A randomized trial of olfactory stimulation using black pepper oil in older people with swallowing dysfunction. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2006;54(9):1401-1406.


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