Bauer J, Koeberle A, Dehm F, Pollastro F, Appendino G, Northoff H, Rossi A, Sautebin L, Werz O
Biochemical Pharmacology, 2011
Based on its capacity to inhibit in vitro HIV-1 replication in T cells and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in monocytes, the prenylated heterodimeric phloroglucinyl α-pyrone arzanol was identified as the major anti-inflammatory and anti-viral constituent from Helichrysum italicum. We have now investigated the activity of arzanol on the biosynthesis of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids, evaluating its anti-inflammatory efficacy in vitro and in vivo. Arzanol inhibited 5-lipoxygenase (EC 18.104.22.168) activity and related leukotriene formation in neutrophils, as well as the activity of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 (EC 22.214.171.124) and the formation of COX-2-derived prostaglandin (PG)E2in vitro (IC50 = 2.3–9 μM). Detailed studies revealed that arzanol primarily inhibits microsomal PGE2 synthase (mPGES)-1 (EC 126.96.36.199, IC50 = 0.4 μM) rather than COX-2. In fact, arzanol could block COX-2/mPGES-1-mediated PGE2 biosynthesis in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human monocytes and human whole blood, but not the concomitant COX-2-derived biosynthesis of thromboxane B2 or of 6-keto PGF1α, and the expression of COX-2 or mPGES-1 protein was not affected. Arzanol potently suppressed the inflammatory response of the carrageenan-induced pleurisy in rats (3.6 mg/kg, i.p.), with significantly reduced levels of PGE2 in the pleural exudates. Taken together, our data show that arzanol potently inhibits the biosynthesis of pro-inflammatory lipid mediators like PGE2in vitro andin vivo, providing a mechanistic rationale for the anti-inflammatory activity of H. italicum, and a rationale for further pre-clinical evaluation of this novel anti-inflammatory lead.
Bauer J, Koeberle A, Dhem F, et al. Arzanol, a prenylated heterodimeric phloroglucinyl pyrone, inhibits eicosanoid biosynthesis and exhibits anti-inflammatory efficacy in vivo. Biochem Pharmacol;2011;81(2):259-268.