Obara Y, Aoki T, Kusano M, Ohizumi Y
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 2002
Beta-eudesmol, a sesquiterpenoid isolated from “So-jutsu” (Atractylodis lanceae rhizomas), is known to have various unique effects on the nervous system. We examined in detail the mechanism by which beta-eudesmol modified neuronal function using rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC-12). Beta-eudesmol at concentrations of 100 and 150 microM significantly induced neurite extension in PC-12 cells, which was accompanied, at the highest concentration, by suppression of [(3)H]thymidine incorporation. Beta-eudesmol at concentrations of 100 and 150 microM also evoked a significant increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in these cells, as determined by the fura 2 assay. Much of this increase remained even after the extracellular Ca(2+) was chelated by EGTA. The [Ca(2+)](i) increase induced by beta-eudesmol was partially inhibited by the phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) inhibitor 1-[6-[[17beta-methoxyestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-yl]amino]hexyl]-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione (U-73122) (2 microM) under extracellular Ca(2+)-free conditions. Furthermore, beta-eudesmol, in a concentration-dependent fashion, caused an accumulation of inositol phosphates. beta-Eudesmol (150 microM) promoted phosphorylation of both mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and cAMP-responsive element binding protein in a time-dependent manner. These phosphorylations were suppressed by the MAPK kinase inhibitor 2-(2′-amino-3′-methoxyphenol)-oxanaphthalen-4-one (PD98059) (50 microM), U-73122 (2 microM), the calmodulin inhibitor N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide hydrochloride (W7) (1-10 microM), and the protein kinase A inhibitor N-[2-(4-bromocinnamylamino)ethyl]-5-isoquinoline (H89) (1-10 microM). Beta-eudesmol-induced neurite extension was significantly inhibited by both U-73122 (2 microM) and PD98059 (30 microM), suggesting the involvement of PI-PLC and MAPK in neurite outgrowth. Beta-eudesmol, being a small molecule, may therefore be a promising lead compound for potentiating neuronal function. Furthermore, the drug may be useful in helping to clarify the mechanisms underlying neuronal differentiation.
Obara Y, Aoki T, Kusano M, Ohizumi Y. Beta-eudesmol induces neurite outgrowth in rat pheochromocytoma cells accompanied by an activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002;301(3):803-811.