Kubeczka KH, Schultze W
Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 1987
Conifers are widespread through the northern hemisphere and many of their essential oils and oleoresins have acquired high commercial significance. After a short review of conifer taxonomy and some cytological aspects of oil secretion and accumulation, general characteristics of conifer oils and resins are discussed in more detail. Since considerable differences can be found in literature concerning the composition of commercially important conifer oils, we have analysed some of them originating from several species of the genera Abies, Larix, Pseudotsuga, Tsuga, Picea and Pinus. The results were compared with those of self-distilled oils from authentic botanical origin and discussed in regard to the systematic grouping of the individual conifer. In addition to investigations of the chemistry of selected conifer oils, the paper outlines the influence of the raw material, especially the relation of needles to twigs and the effect that this variable has on the composition of an individual oil.
Kubeczka KH, Schultze W. Biology and chemistry of conifer oils. Flavour Fragr J. 1987;2:137-148.