Mendes SJ, Sousa FI, Pereira DM, Ferro TA, Pereira IC, Silva BL, Pinheiro AJ, Mouchrek AQ, Monteiro-Neto V, Costa SK, Nascimento JL, Grisotto MA, da Costa R, Fernandes ES
International immunopharmacology, 2016
Cinnamaldehyde is a natural essential oil suggested to possess anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory properties; and to activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channels expressed on neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Here, we investigated the immunomodulatory effects of cinnamaldehyde in an in vivo model of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) induced by lipopolysaccharide. Swiss mice received a single oral treatment with cinnamaldehyde 1h before LPS injection. To investigate whether cinnamaldehyde effects are dependent on TRPA1 activation, animals were treated subcutaneously with the selective TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031 5min prior to cinnamaldehyde administration. Vehicle-treated mice were used as controls. Cinnamaldehyde ameliorated SIRS severity in LPS-injected animals. Diminished numbers of circulating mononuclear cells and increased numbers of peritoneal mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cell numbers were also observed. Cinnamaldehyde augmented the number of peritoneal Ly6C(high) and Ly6C(low) monocyte/macrophage cells in LPS-injected mice. Reduced levels of nitric oxide, plasma TNFα and plasma and peritoneal IL-10 were also detected. Additionally, IL-1β levels were increased in the same animals. TRPA1 antagonism by HC-030031 reversed the changes in the number of circulating and peritoneal leukocytes in cinnamaldehyde-treated animals, whilst increasing the levels of peritoneal IL-10 and reducing peritoneal IL-1β. Overall, cinnamaldehyde modulates SIRS through TRPA1-dependent and independent mechanisms.
Mendes SJ, Sousa FI, Pereira DM, et al. Cinnamaldehyde modulates LPS-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome through TRPA1-dependent and independent mechanisms. Int Immunopharmacol. 2016;34:60-70.