Manconi M, Petretto G, D’hallewin G, Escribano E, Milia E, Pinna R, Palmieri A, Firoznezhad M, Peris JE, Usach I, Fadda AM, Caddeo C, Manca ML
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 2018
The aim of the work was to extract, characterize, and formulate Thymus capitatus (Tymbra capitata) essential oil in phospholipid vesicles: liposomes, glycerosomes and Penetration Enhancer-containing Vesicles (PEVs). The steam-distilled essential oil was mainly composed of carvacrol. The oil was mixed with lecithin and water to produce liposomes, or different ratios of water/glycerol or water/propylene glycol (PG) to produce glycerosomes and PG-PEVs, respectively. Cryo-TEM showed the formation of unilamellar, spherical vesicles, and light scattering disclosed that their size increased in the presence of glycerol or PG, which improved long-term stability. The formulations were highly biocompatible, and capable of counteracting oxidative stress and favouring wound repair in keratinocytes, thanks to enhanced uptake. The antibacterial activity of the oil was demonstrated against cariogenic Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and commensal Streptococcus sanguinis. The combination of antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Thymus essential oil formulations may be useful for the treatment of oral cavity diseases.