Synergistic interaction of ten essential oils against Haemonchus contortus in vitro

Katiki LM, Barbieri AME, Araujo RC, Veríssimo CJ, Louvandini H, Ferreira JFS
Veterinary Parasitology, 2017


Anthelmintic resistance in sheep gastrointestinal nematodes is a worldwide problem. Multi-drug resistant haemonchosis is the most serious impediment for small ruminant systems, and there are no new drug candidates currently under development. Molecules from natural sources have demonstrated anthelmintic activity against parasites. In this work, the monoterpenoids carvacrol, carvone, cineole, linalool, limonene, and thymol and the phenylpropanoids cinnamaldehyde, anethole, vanillin, and eugenol were assessed individually or in mixtures of tenbinary, three ternary, and three quaternary combinations using the in vitro egg hatch assay with eggs of a multi-drug resistant strain of Haemonchus contortus. The main objective of this study was to identify the most effective interaction among essential oils with the greatest individual anthelmintic efficacy and to determine the most powerful combinations. The essential oils were ranked by their 50% lethal concentration (LC50) as follows (mg/mL): cinamaldehyde (0.018), anethole (0.070), carvone (0.085), carvacrol (0.11), thymol (0.13), linalool (0.29), vanillin (0.57), eugenol (0.57), cineole (4.74), and limonene (207.5). Quantification of synergism, additive effect, and antagonism were calculated for binary, ternary, and quaternary combinations. The best anthelmintic effect resulting from synergistic activity among 16 different combinations was for cinnamaldehyde:carvacrol (CL50 0.012mg/mL) and anethole:carvone (CL50 0.013mg/mL). These results indicate that these binary combinations would be promising to be tested in sheep infected with H. contortus.


Katiki LM, Barbieri AME, Araujo RC et al. Synergistic interaction of ten essential oils against Haemonchus contortus in vitro. Vet Parasitol. 2017 Aug 30;243:47-51. doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2017.06.008. Epub 2017 Jun 7.

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